MAYONNAISE RESEARCH STUDY
For the 52 weeks ending June 14, 2015, mayonnaise sales totaled $1.18 billion (Supermarket News 2015). The salad dressing and mayonnaise market is expected to grow, driven by both the retail and the foodservice/quick service restaurant sectors. Interestingly, according to the Association of Dressings & Sauces, Millennials are the most frequent purchasers of mayonnaise, buying nearly twice as much as older generations (ADS 2015). While plain mayonnaise continues to be a mainstay for all types of applications, flavored mayonnaise is a growing trend, as Americans look to save time and money in meal preparation. To keep growing the category, manufacturers will need to continue to innovate in the dressing aisle.
The changes to mayonnaise with reduced egg content were noticeable. The sensory evaluation results from panelists on the organoleptic attributes of the mayonnaise tested were generally consistent with the findings of the objective analytical test results.
The areas of mayonnaise quality most negatively affected when eggs are removed and/or replaced, included emulsion stability, appearance, color and flavor.
Attributes where differences among samples were minimal included pH, aroma, smoothness and mouthfeel. Tasters unanimously preferred the Control to the test formulas. Control’s light yellow color, thick, emulsified appearance and bright, clean flavor on panelists’ approval as the most appealing mayonnaise.
Overall, egg replacer performance varied drastically. Some products were thick and emulsified completely, while others were thin, oily and never achieved full emulsification. Some egg replacers produced mayonnaise with heightened acidity and even some off flavors, while others were muted in flavor. The results suggest dairy protein-based egg replacers may perform most similarly to real eggs in mayonnaise applications, while other products, even when used in combination with other functional ingredients such as legume proteins and gums, may not be effective in replicating established mayonnaise attributes.
Mayonnaise Visual Comparison
Made with REAL EGGS
Made with EGG REPLACERS*
For this research, eggs were reduced and/or removed from mayonnaise formulas and replaced with commercial egg replacer products at the manufacturers’ suggested rates. All the manufacturers recommended removing 100 percent of the eggs from mayonnaise formulas using their products.
The research team selected six egg replacers for testing in mayonnaise formulas. Those tested included:
- Blends of various ingredients, including starches, proteins, emulsifiers, leaveners, enzymes and hydrocolloids
- Dairy Protein
- Algal flour
The correct processing method is as important as selecting ingredients in a formula, especially when making an emulsion. Mayonnaise is mixed in two stages in a high shear blender. First, the water-based ingredients, eggs and seasonings are combined, then the oil is added in slowly while mixing with high shear. This slow addition of oil allows the machine to create small droplets of oil that become suspended in the water phase; the lecithin in egg yolks facilitates this process.
The mayonnaise Tests were all prepared in the same conditions, in the same model equipment, on the same day. Consistent batching, mixing and portioning procedures were used to limit variables. Egg replacing ingredients were added as specified by the manufacturer. The mayonnaise samples were analyzed using industry standard, category-specific tests.
The mayonnaise samples were evaluated as follows:Analytical Tests:
- Emulsion stability
- Smoothness in mouth
- Overall commentary
*This photo represents only 1 of 6 egg replacer products.