FROZEN WAFFLE RESEARCH STUDY
Waffles are a breakfast classic. Most American consumers are familiar with several types: homemade recipes, dry waffle/pancake mixes and frozen varieties. Within the frozen category, two brands of natural frozen waffles exhibited substantial growth averaging 46 percent in the year prior to April 2015 (Finkel 2016). Commercial frozen waffle formulations commonly use whole egg and/or egg yolk solids. For this study, the research team prepared frozen waffles using a standard commercial formulation with frozen liquid whole egg and compared it to frozen waffles prepared with egg replacing ingredients.
The sensory evaluation results from panelists on the organoleptic attributes of the waffles tested were generally consistent with the findings of the objective analytical test results. Overall, not a single egg replacement product performed as well as or better than real eggs in all attributes assessed. Changes to frozen waffles with reduced egg content were slight, but noticeable.
The areas of waffle quality most negatively affected when eggs are removed and/or replaced included batter viscosity, waffle appearance, color, aroma and flavor.
Frozen Waffle Visual Comparison
Made with REAL EGGS
Made with EGG REPLACERS*
For this study, eggs were reduced and/or removed from a frozen waffle formula and substituted with products marketed as egg replacing ingredients for food manufacturers. The team followed manufacturers’ suggested usage levels for egg substitutes in frozen waffles, which varied from 50 to 100 percent. Both the batter and cooked, reheated waffles were evaluated using common industry-standard analytical and qualitative tests.
The research team selected eight egg replacer ingredients, including:
- Wheat protein isolate
- Dairy protein-based
- Blends (comprised of various ingredients and additives)
Waffle batter is typically mixed in one or two stages in planetary mixers, with the primary objectives being ingredient hydration and distribution without developing too much gluten. Excess mixing may result in tough waffles.
The waffles were all prepared in the same condition, in the same model equipment, on the same day. Batter analytical tests were performed immediately after mixing while sensory tests were performed on the waffles after they were frozen and reheated.
The waffle batter and finished, frozen and reheated waffles were tested for the following as appropriate:Analytical Tests:
- Batter specific gravity
- Batter viscosity
- Cell structure
*This photo represents only 1 of 8 egg replacer products.